Functions of Business Finance

Strength and soundness of business depends on the availability of finance and competency with which it is used. The abundance of finance can do wonders and its scarcity can ruin even a well established business. Finance increases the strength and viability of business. It increases the resistance capacity of a business to face losses and economic depression. It is just like a lubricant, the more it is applied to the business, the quickly the business will move. Following headings explain the importance of finance to business:

(1) Initiating Business: Finance is the first and fore most requirement of every business. It is the starting point of every business, industrial project etc. Whether you start a sole proprietary concern, a partnership firm, a company or a charity institution, you need ample amount of finance. It is equally important for profit seeking and non-profit activities. It is equally important for a multinational organization and for a free dispensary.

(2) Purchase of Assets: Finance is needed to purchase all sorts of assets. Even if credit is available some down payment is to be made. Mostly finance is needed at the start of business for the purchase of fixed assets. These fixed assets consume a large amount of initial investment of the entrepreneur, so he may face liquidity difficulty in running day to day affairs of the business.

(3) Initial Losses: No business attains high profit on the first day of commencement. Some losses are normal before the business reaches its full capacity and generate enough revenue to match cost. Finance is necessary so that these initial losses can be sustained and business can be allowed to progress gradually.

(4) Professional Services: Certain business need services of specialized personnel. Such personnel have rich experience in specialized fields and they can provide useful guidance to make business profitable. Nevertheless these services are costly. Finance is always needed so that services of such professional consultants can be hired.

(5) Development: Business is always exposed to change. New innovations and emergence of new technologies replaces old techniques out of market. So in order to remain in the market, it is needed to keep the business well equipped with all emerging tools and techniques. This required finance. New technology is always expensive as it is better than others. So finance is needed to purchase new equipment and keep the business running.

(6) Information Technology: Information technology has now changed the geography of the business battle field. The home markets have now extended virtually to other comers of the world. The whole world can be your customer or competitor. To face such a fierce competition, IT is needed. Skills and competency in IT can perform miracles. But finance is again the decisive factor. It is very much needed to incorporate expensive IT products in the business.

(7) Media War: The advertisement and promotion have now become a vital elements for the success of business. The way a businessman approaches a customer and convinces him to purchase his product has become more important than the quality of product. With advertisement on International media, a businessman can reach the minds of millions of people around the globe. However, advertisement is a luxury which every business can’t afford. Huge finance is required to meet advertisement expenses.

(8) Resource Management: Finance is very essential for efficient resource management. Resources here include capital and human resources. Maintenance of plant and equipment and training of employees all need finance. Establishment of new industrial units, expansion of plant capacity, hiring of well learned skilful laborers – all
these factors can lead to huge revenue but at the first place they need finance to start with.

(9) Stock Investments: These investments are those which are made to hold ample stock of raw materials in hand. Bulk purchase of raw materials is profitable in a sense that purchase discount can be attained and there is no danger of production halts. So companies most often hold huge amount of stocks and raw materials. But such an investment can be made only if a company has sufficient capital or finance to carry out its daily operation easily besides holding huge stock.

(10) Combating Risks: Everything is exposed to one or more risks. A business is also exposed to variety of risks. These risks include natural hazards, burden of any huge liability, loss of market or brand name etc. Finance is needed to make business powerful, so that it can sustain occasional losses and liabilities.

Small Business Marketing For Sales Growth

Most small business owners would agree on the need to have a plan for sales growth. Yet far too many small businesses rely on “sales effort” and far too few establish appropriate marketing strategies for sales growth.

Most marketing experts suggest three marketing strategies that are open to all businesses, large and small:

o The least-cost strategy. Using this strategy, a company competes by selling uniform, standard products. Market demand for these products is usually highly elastic. An increase in price triggers a sharp drop in sales volume because (1) demand is low, supply is high, or (2) there are plenty of competitors who can supply substitutes. Buyers expect price concessions, which naturally lead least-cost firms to emphasize production at the lowest possible per-unit costs.

o The differentiation strategy. A company using this strategy attempts to offer unique products that are set off from the competition by superior quality or service. Market demand tends to be inelastic (that is, sales volume doesn’t vary in proportion to price). Goods are priced well above production costs. The company that pursues a strategy of differentiation must invest heavily in product development and innovative packaging and promotion. And it must stay closely in tune with customers’ changing needs and desires.

o The niche strategy. Using this option, a company sells a premium priced product or service to a few buyers. Unit costs are high because output is low and costs such as labor or research and development may be great. Brand identification and customer loyalty are the keys to success.

In adopting a marketing strategy, most small businesses should opt for the differentiation or niche strategy, or a combination of the two. The least-cost strategy is the least successful for small companies. There’s a simple reason why: production costs.

A company’s production costs tend to decline as it accumulates experience in producing the product. How much production experience a company has the opportunity to acquire depends on its share of the market. The larger its market share, the lower its costs.

Therefore, the dominant competitor in a market is in the best position to pursue a least-cost strategy. It can and will shave profit margins to drive out competitors who can’t compete on price. The market leader is assured that the more it can produce and sell regardless of price, the lower its cost will go. So, the least-cost strategy is usually used by very large companies that have the resources to dominate a particular market, local, regional, national or international.

A clear message here is to stay out of areas where there already is a dominant market leader unless you’re prepared for a costly business battle. That means building on your business’s own experience, pushing its competitive edge to the limit in an effort to become the dominant competitor. You can do this by:

o Developing a new product;
o Differentiating your product to appeal to a segment of the market where you have the most experience; or
o Finding a niche in a highly fragmented market where there is no clearly dominant competitor.

When developing new products, stick to your strength. There may be a virtue in staying small, at least in one sense. For one thing, contracting for a service may be cheaper than doing it yourself. Aside from that, each distinctive business function has its own little tricks, short-cuts and hidden pitfalls. In starting a function from scratch, you are committing time, money and capital to an area where competitors, because of their greater experience, may have a clear cost edge.

It’s a common story these days that new, high technology products are no sooner brought out of the designer’s “garage” than they are an instant hit in the marketplace. A production facility is quickly put together and business blossoms-until a larger competitor swoops down with a copycat product and takes the business away.

The cause isn’t just the predatory nature of big business. Often, the designer’s experience in research and development doesn’t carryover to functions that are vital to success in a competitive market: sales and marketing, distribution and financing. The new business can’t come close to matching the larger firm’s experience and proficiency in these areas. And this gives the larger firm an insurmountable edge in the marketplace.

You should consider an alternative strategy: If your business is good at R & D, consider joining with a business that is good at production, sales and marketing. If you have the edge in one geographical region, join with a business that has strong national marketing and distribution channels. Above all, concentrate your resources where your experience is greatest.

Another avenue to sales growth is differentiation. Break away from the pack and make your product stand out from the competition on the basis of superior quality and innovation. Your objective is to maintain the unique appeal a product has to quality-minded consumers. At the same time, look for ways to make carrying your product more attractive to wholesalers and retailers as well.

Profitable niches are often found in markets where there’s no clear industry leader. For example, Enterprise Rent-A-Car built the world’s largest rental car agency by specializing in “wreck replacement” rentals. At the time, the market was under served and there was no clear leader for the service. But finding the appropriate niche can take patience. And once you find it, it’s vital to cultivate customer loyalty and confidence.

SEO FAQ For Small Business 7 of 10 – How Long For SEO Results? (SEO Results Time Frame)

As we’ve discussed in previous articles, search engine optimization takes time and effort. In this article we’ll discuss the basic time frame in which you could expect results.

The hours and effort needed to increase the visibility of your small business website depend greatly on your marketing plan and which keyword you’re going after. Let’s take the term mortgage calculator. If you were to advertise your mortgage calculator with Google, the Google Traffic Estimator shows an estimated 600 to 752 clicks per day with a projected AdWords cost of $2,070 – $3,680 PER DAY for this keyword. There are 24,900,000 Google results for this term, and 510 associated keywords. Google Keyword Tools also reveals approx 890,000 searches for this term in a month.

This is some serious competition and your chances of getting on the first page of Google in less than a year is possible, but not probable. The top Google site for this term is Alexa ranked at about 7700 in the US with over 60% of the traffic coming from search engines. There are still ways to compete with this particular website on this particular keyword, but it would take a while. This top site gets a majority of the traffic for the term.

As a minimum time investment, you should be committed to performing (or contracting for) at least two hours a day, three days a week, for at least three to six months, with a review of progress and re-evaluation at the three and six month mark. You may very well experience a noticeable traffic increase in only four or six weeks, but to get onto the front page of a search engine will require two or three crawls of the site by the search engines after optimization, and you have no control over when, and if, that happens. A year-long optimization campaign is not unheard of for a large site. If your site is less than three or four months old, or the domain is expiring in less than a year, you may have issues with high rank despite your best efforts as these are ‘red flags’ to the search engines.

Don’t forget your off-page efforts as well. This will be the subject of the next article. Take into consideration your other sources of product or service promotion and notification. I’m speaking of your existent customer base, your business related social network (or lack thereof) and your business blog. These are invaluable resources for the formation of ‘inbound links’, article or video reviews, and “join the conversation”. Remember that “joining the conversation” is customer service and a means to an end. Talking about your site or services is a fine thing, and handling issues is a must, but if you’re not converting your conversation or generating calls to action and practicing the ‘principle of reciprocity’, then you are not using your off-site network to its fullest potential. Conversations are mostly listening, but more importantly hearing.

No matter your business battle plan, it will take time to formulate and execute. Tell the principals involved (CEO, CFO and CIO) that they need to budget at least six months for the project, with reviews occurring every ninety days to check on progress toward the pre-defined goal. And please don’t end the project when you’ve exceeded your goals. You’ve gotten more than you expected and should continue to reap the benefits. If it works for you, continue to work it until your growth curve begins to flatten, and then do it again with another ‘angle of attack’. You can have “too much exposure” in the same respect you can have “too many customers”.

Next time: Social Media and SEO.